The Gran Pajatén

The “Gran Pajatén” is the vestige of the glorious existence of pre-Inca men. This people left us roads, agricultural terraces, and also domestic and ceremonial structures. According to the researches, this place was influenced by the Incas until the arrival of the Spaniards.

Pajaten ruins

The settlers of this zone are proud of being descendants of that great culture called The “Gran Pajatén” or Culture from the Abiseo.

The “Gran Pajatén” is the testimony of a glorious past, tracks of this unconquerable people who overcoming the hardness of a virgin forest entered into her to built houses, temples, palaces, etc. The Ruins of the “Gran Pajatén” have not revealed their mystery yet.

These ruins are located in the province of Mariscal Cáceres (Juanjui), within the National Park of the Abiseo River. Visit this place is an amazing experience, with a lot of adventure, meditation and admiration.

The vestiges of the “Gran Pajatén” are the evidence of the existence of an important pre-Inca civilization in the mountains of the high forest of San Martín; in the photo you can see one of the important constructions of that time, The Pinchudos Mausoleum. The walls of this place are of stone and mud, and the idols that are hung naked around the place are made of wood. This is never touched pre-Hispanic vestiges.

In the western sector of the Park you can find the “Gran Pajatén”, The Pinchudos Mausoleum, the archaeological rests of The Beach, The Paredones, The Papayas and The ruins of Ajisuncho (Tumac River, Inca trail, Ventanas-Cajamarca).

They remained hidden until 1963 in when it was rediscovered. The Mausoleum is characterized particularly by the idols of wood that represent naked humans with bulky genitals; these idols are hanging from the superior beams.

The burial of their death people had an important character; more important if the death was some religious leader. All their activities were always made in harmony with the nature because they adored the Pachamama (Mother Earth). The Hispanic cultures of the National Park of the Abiseo River played a very important role in the sprouting of the Andean civilization.

The National Park of the Abiseo River is a time capsule that conserves the rests of a lost Andean-pre-Hispanic world. The Park has two differentiated sectors. The Eastern one, that is between the 1500 and the 3300 meters above sea level. Some scientists consider that this place could be part of the refuge of the Huallaga Pleistocene.

The Hispanic cultures of the National Park of the Abiseo River played a very important role in the sprouting of the Andean civilization.

The PNRA is a time capsule that conserves the rest of a lost Andean-pre-Hispanic world. The PNRA counts on two differentiated sectors.

Birds – Mammals

DIVERSIDAD: OCELOT
(Leopardos pardalis)

Leopardos pardalis
Known as the tigrillo or onza, this species is without a doubt the best-known and most numerous of the smaller spotted cats in Peru. It can measure up to 70-80 centimeters long (without counting the tail) and can weigh up to 12 kilos. Its fur is a yellowish tone with white spots that dot along a longitudinal pattern from head to tail. It differs from the margay in its squat but strong feet. Mainly a land-based, solitary animal, it hunts day and night. Exclusively a carnivore, the ocelot preys on birds and small mammals in general, although it also eats lizards, snakes and even frogs. Hunted down remorselessly for its fine fur, ocelots have disappeared altogether from vast stretches of tropical jungle.

They tolerate human presence in areas where the cats are not hunted it is also an endangered species.

FAUNA SYLVAN ENDANGERED SPECIES
NOMBRE COMUN NOMBRE CIENTIFICO SITUACION ACTUAL
Mono Choro de Cola Logothrix flavicauda En Vías de Extinción
Mono Choro Común Logothrix logothricha Situación Vulnerable
Maquisapa Negro Ateles paniscus En Vías de Extinción
Oso de Anteojos Tremarctos ornatus En Vías de Extinción
Otorongo o Jaguar Panthera onca Situación Vulnerable
Tigrillo u Ocelote Leopardus pardalis Situación Vulnerable
Yaguarundi o Añuje puma Herpailurus yaguarondi Situación Vulnerable
Lobo grande de río Ptenoura brasilensis En Vías de Extinción
Nutria o Lobito de río Lutra Longicaudis En Vías de Extinción
Carachupa Priodontes maximus Situación Vulnerable
Sachavaca o Tapir Tapirus terrestris Situación Vulnerable
Venado Colorado Mazama americana Situación Vulnerable
Sacha cabra Pudu mephistopheles Situación Vulnerable
Cóndor de la Selva Sarcoramphus papa Situación Vulnerable
Pava negra Aburria aburri Situación Vulnerable
Espátula rosada Ajaia ajaja Situación Vulnerable
Aguila monera Morphus guianensis Situación Rara
Aguila Harpía Harpía harpyja En Vías de Extinción
Guacamayo Azul Amarillo Ara ararauna Situación Vulnerable
Guacamayo Rojo y Verde Ara chloroptera Situación Vulnerable
Guacamayo Rojo Ara macao Situación Vulnerable
Lagarto Blanco Caiman crocodilus Situación Vulnerable
Lagarto Negro Melanosuchus niger Situación Vulnerable
Anaconda o Yacumama Eunectes murinos Situación Rara
Taricaya Podocnemis unifilis Situación Vulnerable
fuente:ALLPA RUNA

Insects

BUTTERFLAY: 1300 species
For the understood ones in the subject, to speak of butterflies is equivalent to speak of Peru. And it is that in the Peruvian territory is one of each five species of butterflies of the world, another world-wide record of biodiversity that constitutes one more a reason than sufficient to animate a trip by the Peruvian forests.

BUTTERFLAY peru

The butterflies constitute at the present time the group better known the terrestrial invertebrates. And much of it to the works of scientists in the remote forests of Peru. In recent years, the theories that maintain that the amazonian natural diversity increases in relation to its proximity with the $andes have been verified with forceful numbers in end.

Thus, for example, the extraordinary number of 1.300 species in the locality of Pakitza was registered, in the National Park of the Manu, to the Peruvian suroriente. And at only 235 km of distance, in a small shelter of the Tambopata river, the number arrived at 1.260 species.

The surprising thing of these findings is that only 60% of the registries were equal for both localities.

The investigators consider that the total diversity of butterflies of the country must exceed the 4.200 species, 3.700 of who have been registered. The magnitude of this number is clear when is compared it with the total of species that exist in Australia (396), Europe (441) or North America (679). The tropical forests are the atmospheres that, of distant spot, lodge to a the greater variety of butterflies. As much in the level high forest as in the amazonian one areas exist where the diversity is so that it could maintain occupied to a fan during whole weeks.

Orchids

ORQUIDEAS: La flor mas bella
Peru is a diverse and beautiful country. His varied geography it hides beautiful landscapes and it lodges singular creatures. One of the places where the nature has been developed with greater profusion is the mountain forests. It is there, between slopes covered with dense vegetation, that emphasize the orquídeas like jewels in him tropical forest.

ORQUIDEAS

The department of San Martín still counts on extensive tropical forests, considered by the connoisseurs like the best place of Peru – and perhaps of the world to observe these beautiful flowers in its natural atmosphere.

In the environs of Moyobamba the orquídeas have found the optimal conditions for their development: abundant rains, discharges temperatures and abundance of food.

Los expertos calculan que existe en todo el mundo entre veinte y treinta mil variedades diferentes de orquídeas, siendo de los bosques de Malasia y Sudamérica las regiones más privilegiadas.

Existen dos grandes grupos de orquídeas: las terrestres y las aéreas. Son las segundas, es decir, las crecen sobre otras plantas, las más numerosas y espectaculares.

Sus formas y tamaños varían desde menos de un centímetro -incluyendo las flores-, hasta más de siete metros de altura. Algunas orquídeas presentan formas achaparradas y diminutas; otras, llegan a alcanzar… más de treinta metros de largo.

El colorido de las flores es también realmente espectacular. Sus tonos van del blanco inmaculado al púrpura, pasando por combinaciones de amarillo, naranja, rojo y hasta verde, por lo que muchas veces los investigadores tienen serios problemas para reconocerlas como tales.

La razón del brillante colorido de estas flores se debe a la necesidad de llamar la atención de los insectos que las fecundarán. Así, de manera similar a los “avisos luminosos” que pueblan las calles de la ciudad, las orquídeas anuncian su presencia en el bosque.

Algunas flores duran solo un día o incluso horas, mientras otras pueden permanecer esplendorosas durante varias semanas si no han sido fecundadas.

En la actualidad las orquídeas no solo decoran con sus colores los bosques de neblina de Moyobamba.

Su belleza las ha convertido en un artículo de gran demanda en el mercado internacional de plantas ornamentales.

Es por ello que en San Martín se viene trabajando en el desarrollo de cultivos en invernadero con el objeto de exportar orquídeas al mundo entero.

Así, además de brindar su belleza a las selvas, las orquídeas se convierten en una fuente de ingresos de importancia para los habitantes de esta región.

Lamas

CITY OF THE THREE FLOORS
Lamas is a traditional province of the departamento of San Martín. Here ancestral and the modern things are all mixed up with the colorful landscape of the Central Huallaga. It is located on a hill that dominates the low May river could have inspirited the name of the town of “Las Lomas”, which progressively derived in the word Lamas.

Lamas is less than an hour away from Tarapoto city and stands out to show an evident division of three sections that in the local jargon has deserved the qualification of “City of the Three Floors”. Actually, the first floor belongs to the low part of the hill Waykus, and here live native Quechua speakers that could be the legendary descendants of the Chankas of Ayacucho, Apurímac and Huancavelica. Promoting the hill is the second floor, in which live the “mestizos”. Above, to 860 meters above sea level arises the summit or third floor, called “viewer” from here you can see the exuberant vegetation and the foliage of the Central Huallaga.

Lamas peru

ORIGINS
Who were really the founders of Lamas? What mysteries are hidden in the streets of the “mestizos”? What fears shelter the native ones so that they construct his houses without windows? Lately, the version that says that natives of the Walku descend from the Chankas, a group whose territory includes the departamentos of Ayacucho, Apurímac and Huancavelica, has become very important.

¿CHANKAS?
According to the stories of Sarmiento de Gamboa, they arrived to the Low May River running from the Incas, possibly in the decades of 1450 or 1460. Their leader and conductor was Ancohuallo, who was defeated by Inca Pachacutec and forced to thicken the conquering forces of the Tahuantinsuyu with his people. But when Ancohuallo finds out that Pachacutec ordered to kill him and his people, he runed away while the Inca army was in Huanuco. Perhaps his destiny took him to the Northeastern looking for a place where nobody could find him. Perhaps this epic history is very well-known in Lamas and to commemorate that episode, the name of Ancohuallo is popular; also there is monument to this Chanka rebel in a small park designated for such aim in the mestizos floor. This mountain origin also supports the linguistic one.

The natives from the Wayku speaks a quechua that is very similar to the one that is spoken in Ayacucho, Apurímac and Huancavelica. Also exists similitude with t he quechua spoken in Cajamarca, Amazon and Ucayali. Approximately twenty thousand people the districts of Sisa Pongo, Chazuta, and Pamashto among others, still use the Quechua as their main language.

IDENTITY
Although the historical linguistic data, in addition to the bioantropologist researches, indicates a highland origin for the natives of the Wayku, these do not include the existence of other groups of the highlands. Certainly when Chankas arrived at the low May, they found other “nations” like the Motilones, Tabalosos, Amassifuynes, the Hibitos, the MiniChes, the Chayahuitas, etc. These people lived in the low May and their relations were not very friendly. The word “motilon” is applied to all the groups that were located in the province of Lamas. For that reason, some students propose that the natives of Lamas can be consequence of different “nations” of the Central Huallaga that were grouped by the Jesuits missionaries in century XVII, imposing Quechua to catechize the natives.

The natives The natives usually wear their primroses typical suits, that in full dress shine mainly in Easter and on August 31st dates in which they are congregated to intone ancestral songs and dances. Also calls the attention the courtship and the marriage between the mestizos. This happen when the bride accepts that some coins involved in a handkerchief can be dropped in her décolleté. It is also counted that the groom must demonstrate his capacity to maintain his future wife, taking a heavy load from Lamas to a town located to more than 2 days of trip. Only fulfilling satisfactorily this requirement, the marriage is consumed.

The Lamas natives have opted to maintain their identity despite daily contact with the mestizos. They still build their houses without windows, to prevent evil spirits and negative energies from invading their homes. They express their identity through handcrafts of baskets made from jipijapa, cotton weavings, ceramics and numerous ornaments made from the seeds of exotic trees. At the gates of the 21st century, Lamas remains truly an ancestral enclave that defies the dizzying rush of modernization sweeping the country

Landscapes

Baños Termales de San Mateo
Located at 4 km from the city of Moyabamba (5 minutes in car approximately) and 945 meters above sea level. This baths are well known by its properties to the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, muscular pain and stress. The temperature of water varies between 32º C (89º F) and 40º C (104º F).

Banos Termales de San Mateo

Baños Sulfurosos de Oromina
Placed 7 km away from Moyobamba city (20 minutes in car approximately).

It is a natural outcrop of sulfurous water. Located on the slopes of the Oromina ridge, inside the Protection Forest of the High Mayo river. They are known by the therapeutic properties of its waters. In the environ it is possible it can also be visited the Cave of Love and the cascade of Asnacyacu

‘Las Puntas’ or natural viewpoints
The ‘Punta’ of San Juan, Tahuishco and Fachin are beautiful natural viewpoints in the extremes of the city of Moyabamba.

They are uneven nesses very pronounced where beautiful ‘Puntas’ or natural viewpoints are formed and allow us to appreciate the landscape and specially the beautiful sunsets characteristic of the zone.

Aguajal-Renacal del Avisado
Unique humid ecosystem of the world, with an altitude of 800 meters above sea level, with an amphibious vegetal formation, characterized by an abundant population of plants of aguaje and renaco.

In the zone they inhabit different species from mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, insects between which stand out the wolves of river; different species of monkeys like ‘fraile’, ‘pichico’ and ‘machin negro’; the ‘oso perezoso’, coati and ‘oso hormiguero’.

The Mountain range
Primera área de conservación regional
The Mountain range Stairs comprises of the mountain range Cahuapayas that extends longitudinally to the northeast of the cities of Tarapoto and Lamas, in the region San Martín. One is between the river basins of the Huallaga rivers and May, connecting the mountains that conform the National Park Blue Mountain range to those of the Forest of National Protection the High May and the National Reserve Colán Mountain range. It presents/displays heights that go from the 500 to the 2000 msnm. One is a zone high-priority for protection and the generating and producing conservation of the fog forests, ecosystems of water and biological processes possible to only understand if rich one is appraised its and varied diversity of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and plants. In 1989, the conservacionista Antonio Brack Egg recommended the protection of the zone to consider that within their limits were species of distribution very restricted. In 1996 it was considered like high-priority zone for the conservation of the biological diversity in Peru. By the importance that represents for the sanmartinense population and the country, the Regional Government, with the support of the Center of Development and Investigation of Forest High CEDISA, it presented/displayed the year last to the National Institute of Natural Resources (Inrena) necessary the technical file for the official creation of the Area of Regional Conservation Mountain range Stairs the same one that are ready for its approval by the Cabinet who to give the approval him would create – on an extension of 149.870 hectares the first Area of Regional Conservation at national level. In Mountain range Stairs are the main river basins that supply of water of good quality – that they make the generation possible of environmental services for a population of than 150 thousand inhabitants seated more in the low parts. In addition to it the exultante wealth of its humid ecosystems can appropriately be used in scientific and ecoturísticos projects of first order for the region. In zone have been recently nine species of amphibians nonreported in him Peru, in addition to wild species in vulnerable situation like the bear of eyeglasses (Tremarctos ornatos), machín white (Cebus albifrons)y tigrillo (pardales Leopards).

Cueva del Diamante
Located within the Protection Forest of the High May, 58 km to the northwest of the city of Rioja, in the district of Naranjos (40 minutes in car approximately).

In them can be observed capricious figures formed by stalactites and ‘estalagmitas’.
Naciente del Río Tioyacu

Naciente del Río Tioyacu
Located at 14 km away from the city of Rioja (20 minutes in car approximately). You arrive to the town of ‘Segunda Jerusalem’, from there cross 600 meters there to the east of the river (15 minutes on foot approximately).

The Tioyacu river is born from the base of the mountain, located to 898 meter above sea level, its waters are cold and crystalline; throughout his route it forms natural pools and natural cascades. It also has places to practice some sports like volley or soccer and is appropriate to rest and share pleasant moments.

Rio Negro
The forests that are next to this river are characterized by the presence of exuberant plants of epifitas that live on the branches of the trees, varied species of orquídeas, bromelias, arboreal ferns as well as medicinal plants (cat nail, the blood of degree, etc.) can be found.

Laguna Azul (Blue Lagoon)

50 km away from Tarapoto city (approximately 2.30 hours in car) crossing the r Huallaga river through a captive raft.

The lagoon is a beautiful water mirror of about 350 hectares with an approximated depth of 35 meters.

The temperature of the water oscillates between 25ºC (77ºF) to 28ºC (82,4 ºF) and it color varies between greenness and bluish tones.

The lagoon is habitat of herons, ‘martines pescadores’, sachapatos and eagles. In addition there are amphibians, reptiles and fish, between which they emphasize the bujurcos, carachamas, bagres and mojarras.
In its environs is the colorful town of Sauce that counts on services of lodging and restaurants for those who wish to stay there, and they also have boats to take a stroll by the lake.

Lake Lindo
10 minutes of long walk from the town of Sauce, is one of the most beautiful places of the region.

It is the result of the accumulation of rains in the low part of the land. In the lagoon excels the foliage of some trees, in which ferns have grown and the birds have made their nests. Here wild ducks, paucares, martines pescadores, manacaracos and shanshos can be observed flying almost to the evenness of crystalline waters

Petroglifos de Polish
Located at 8.5 km away from the city of Tarapoto (20 minutes in car approximately).

They are five stones that carefully have been decorated with figures of animals and plants in low relief; the time to which they belong can not be presiced.

The National Park of the Abiseo River

The National Park of the Abiseo River (Parque Nacional Rio Abiseo – PNRA) is part of the National System of Natural Areas Protected by the State and was created to protect, with intangible character, the natural resources of flora and wild fauna, the landscape beauty, the hydrographic river basin of the Abiseo river, to conserve its cultural resources, particularly the “Gran Pajatén” archaeological complex and to promote the scientific research. In spite of the numerous studies that have been done in the area, the National Park of the Abiseo River still keeps in its fog forests, which shelters a exceptional diversity of plants and animals, a lot of mysteries to be revealed.

Parque Nacional Rio Abiseo

Discoveries demonstrate that the zone of the National Park of the Abiseo River was inhabited by almost 10 thousand years. The several occupations by the people who inherited the “Gran Pajatén” to us, justified that the UNESCO, recognized the National Park of the Abiseo River, as a Cultural Patrimony of the Humanity on December 14th, 1990. Later, on December 12, 1992 was incorporated to the list of the places that are Natural Patrimony of the Humanity, is to say a Site of Mixed World-wide Patrimony, qualification that only have 14 areas in the world and 4 in Latin America. Two of them, including Abiseo, are in Peru.

German Financial cooperation for the financing through the PROFONANPE of the costs of the National Park of the Abiseo River is one of the Protected Natural Areas of greater biological wealth of the Peru, that in addition contains rest of pre-Columbian occupation of incalculable scientific value. The presence in the Park of numerous and exceptionally archaeological rest, within a vast wooded area, is only comparable in Latin America with the National Park and Site of World-wide Patrimony of Tikal in Guatemala.

In century XIX, during periplo of the German investigator Alexander Von Humbolt, by the locality of Chiclayo, found the leather of primate totally not known by science, reason why he denominated it like Coliamarillo Monkey, soon to lose in the time, redescubriendo it a century later.

In the 19th century, during the trip of the German investigator Alexander Von Humboldt, by the departamento of Chiclayo, he found the leather of a primate totally unknown by science, which he named the ‘Coli Amarillo Monkey’. This specie was forgotten by science and was rediscovered a century later).

They brought samples such as: Momias, utensils and textiles that are in the district of Piás; a fragment of the mantles was presented by the Dr Federico Kauffmann (Alayo 2002).In 1980 were published the first works about the “Mono Choro de Cola Amarilla” (Flavicauda Lagothrix) and also the existence of important places like the “Pinchudos” and the “Papayas” (Leo and Ortiz 1980).

CULTURAL PATRIMONY
The National Park or the Abiseo River was created on an area of 274 520 hectares. On December 14th, 1990 the Park was declared by the UNESCO Cultural Patrimony of the Humanity and on December 1992 Natural Patrimony of the Humanity. Scientifics had registered 36 archeological places. The most important are: The Pinchudos Mausoleum (El Mausoleo de los Pinchudos), the archaeological complex of the “Gran Pajatén”, the Central Hill, The Beach and The Papayas.